How to design a wiring diagram in the garage
- Connecting the garage to the mains
- Cable connection
- Schematic diagram
- Necessary elements of wiring
- Choice of cables and machines
- Electrical equipment layout
- Specification of electrical equipment and materials
Electricity is needed in any garage. It is needed to connect power tools, workplace lighting in the viewing pit and above, battery charging and other purposes. But a garage is a fire risk place due to the presence of gasoline and oil. Therefore, special requirements are imposed on electrical wiring. About what should be the wiring diagram in the garage will tell in this article.
Connecting the garage to the mains
Many car owners are concerned about the question of whether the project is needed to supply the garage. If you need to connect 220 V to the garage, you can do it yourself. In the garage cooperative to connect to the garage you need to contact the chairman to obtain technical conditions. An individual garage located in the yard of the owner is usually connected from the apartment using CIP (self-supporting insulated wire). More information about the wiring in the GSK described in the article. "Design of power supply garage cooperative - the rules and possible errors" . A detached garage can be connected upon request, but this can only be done if it exists officially, and is not “samostroem.” In such a situation, it is not necessary to draw up a single-line scheme for supplying the garage with electricity. The permitted power in this case will be 15 kW.
To connect the three-phase power supply 380 V, you need to obtain a permit and technical conditions for the power supply of the garage in the electric company and you should make a project for connecting the electricity. It is better to entrust the professionals. When self-designed power supply errors in the calculation of cables, route laying or in the design of the project. This will lead to the fact that the cost of designing power supply will increase significantly.
CIP (self-insulated wire)
If the garage is located in a garage cooperative, then the connection is usually centralized to all members of the cooperative under the same technical conditions.
Connect in the yard of your house or apartment is best self-supporting insulated cable (CIP). It is possible to design and perform the connection of the power supply of the garage with a conventional cable, but by itself it is not strong enough, and the method of stretching steel wire and tying the cable to it is obsolete.
In the ground, the cable is laid in a trench, usually when building a house.
For electrical wiring in the garage need a schematic diagram and a detailed plan for the location of sockets, switches, lamps and other electrical equipment. Even if the design in full is not made, then these wiring must be required. Without them, it is impossible to calculate the amount of materials, and after the completion of the work, the switches may be in the most unexpected place.
Before starting the design, the number and power of luminaires and other electrical equipment is determined. On the basis of these data a schematic diagram is drawn up. It marked all electrical appliances with an indication of power.
Necessary elements of wiring
There are a number of devices and devices that must be in the garage:
- Electricity meter. If the garage is connected from the apartment, then the electricity meter is not needed.
- Introductory machine. Turns off electricity in a garage during a short circuit or overload currents. The current of the machine is determined by the allowed power in the cooperative. If the connection is made from a private house or apartment, then the current of the machine is selected no more than the input machine in the apartment or private house.
- RCD (residual current device). It disconnects the power supply from the network when a leakage current appears on the “ground” or person.
- A step-down transformer. If there is an inspection pit in the garage, then stationary and portable lamps in it should be under reduced voltage. According to GOST, the secondary winding of the transformer must be grounded. Sometimes a 12V battery charger is connected to the luminaires if it has an appropriate output.
- Grounding All sockets, lamps and other electrical appliances must be grounded. For example, in a metal garage it is necessary to ground the entire garage, as well as all metal parts.
Important! Use as a grounding ground wire is strictly prohibited!
It is possible with the help of automata to separate different electrical appliances - separately lamps, separately sockets. It is advisable to include a separate machine charger and welding machine.
The circuit when connecting 380V has a large number of wires.
Choice of cables and machines
The current of the automata is chosen according to the power of the loads that they must disconnect. When designing an electrician, the cable cross section is selected based on the current loads that are connected to it. A three-core cable with grounding is conducted to the grounding sockets, and a two-core cable to the switches.
Electrical equipment layout
On the garage plan is a plan for the location of electrical equipment. On the plan indicate all the equipment with cables to them. If junction boxes are used, the type, length and section of the cable are specified separately for each section. Possible installation option in which all cables come to the terminal board in the electrical panel. This increases reliability, but increases cable consumption.
The cable length is indicated near the lows, and the installation height is noted near wall outlets, switches and wall-mounted luminaires.
Specification of electrical equipment and materials
The specification is a list of required materials. Incorrect specification will result in picking errors.
The specification takes into account the number of cables for each type separately and the method of installation with fasteners, ducts or corrugated hoses.
If the amount of materials is large enough, then it makes sense to order materials via the Internet or contact your electrical equipment distributor.
Specialists from the Mega.ru company will design the garage's power supply both for a typical electrical project and an individual one, for any technical conditions for power supply. The company operates in Moscow and the Moscow region, as well as in adjacent areas. Remote collaboration possible. You can contact representatives or leave a message by phone and feedback form on the page " Contacts ".